Sleep serves a restorative function for the brain and cognition and involves dramatic changes to our perception, consciousness, cognition and health. We know that sleep is closely regulated, that it helps our cognitive performance, promotes learning and memory consolidation. Lack of sleep immediately affects our cognition, mood, and health. A long-term inability to sleep ultimately leads to death and yet the scientific community is still not entirely agreed on its purpose or function. The perpetual activity of the brain is largely supported by a variety of oscillations and rhythms it generates. Sleep and sleep stages are also characterized by specific brain oscillations, which, unlike those of wakefulness, are maintained free of external inputs. This means that a transient perturbation during sleep can have a lasting impact. This posits the state of sleep as a unique state for any potential therapeutic intervention in memory and brain plasticity/regeneration.